I had the same question a few months ago, here is the answer:
In short, it is not possible using the nameFilter, it is good for one attribute only. You can use the new batch feature, but it is in CTP right now, so could change. I have not tried it yet, but it does look a little messy. Scanning the documentation, it looks like I will have to create a call for each attribute I want to see, pack them up in a batch call, then unpack them in the return results. When I get some time I'm going to test the performance of this, as that is my biggest issue. What I would really like to see is the ability to send a list of attributes and have a nice clean data set come back. Batch is good, but pretty generic. I think wanting a subset of attributes is a very common scenario that could warrant an expansion to the getsteamset(s) capabilities.
If the subset of attributes is pre-defined, then you can look into using the streamsetsadhoc endpoint. The downside is if these attributes are discovered during runtime via search filters, then this endpoint can't be used.
We'll be making the batch feature as part of the core services for the next release (so promoted from CTP). Also, this next release will allow you to perform value queries on attributes found during runtime (via a nameFilter for example) so it's no longer limited to pre-defined attribute lists. This should help reduce the number of client-to-web api server calls in cases where values for subsets of attributes are desired.